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Horses have two olfactory centers. The first system is in the nostrils and nasal cavity, which analyze a wide range of odors.

The second, located under the nasal cavity, are the Vomeronasal organs , also called Jacobson's organs. These have a separate nerve pathway to the brain and appear to primarily analyze pheromones.

A study in the UK indicated that stabled horses were calmest in a quiet setting, or if listening to country or classical music, but displayed signs of nervousness when listening to jazz or rock music.

This study also recommended keeping music under a volume of 21 decibels. Horses have a great sense of balance, due partly to their ability to feel their footing and partly to highly developed proprioception —the unconscious sense of where the body and limbs are at all times.

The most sensitive areas are around the eyes, ears, and nose. Horses have an advanced sense of taste, which allows them to sort through fodder and choose what they would most like to eat, [79] and their prehensile lips can easily sort even small grains.

Horses generally will not eat poisonous plants, however, there are exceptions; horses will occasionally eat toxic amounts of poisonous plants even when there is adequate healthy food.

All horses move naturally with four basic gaits: These include the lateral rack , running walk , and tölt as well as the diagonal fox trot.

Horses are prey animals with a strong fight-or-flight response. Their first reaction to threat is to startle and usually flee, although they will stand their ground and defend themselves when flight is impossible or if their young are threatened.

Most light horse riding breeds were developed for speed, agility, alertness and endurance; natural qualities that extend from their wild ancestors.

However, through selective breeding, some breeds of horses are quite docile, particularly certain draft horses. Horses are herd animals , with a clear hierarchy of rank, led by a dominant individual, usually a mare.

They are also social creatures that are able to form companionship attachments to their own species and to other animals, including humans.

They communicate in various ways, including vocalizations such as nickering or whinnying, mutual grooming , and body language. Many horses will become difficult to manage if they are isolated, but with training, horses can learn to accept a human as a companion, and thus be comfortable away from other horses.

Studies have indicated that horses perform a number of cognitive tasks on a daily basis, meeting mental challenges that include food procurement and identification of individuals within a social system.

They also have good spatial discrimination abilities. Horses excel at simple learning, but also are able to use more advanced cognitive abilities that involve categorization and concept learning.

They can learn using habituation , desensitization , classical conditioning , and operant conditioning , and positive and negative reinforcement.

Domesticated horses may face greater mental challenges than wild horses, because they live in artificial environments that prevent instinctive behavior whilst also learning tasks that are not natural.

One trainer believes that "intelligent" horses are reflections of intelligent trainers who effectively use response conditioning techniques and positive reinforcement to train in the style that best fits with an individual animal's natural inclinations.

Horses are mammals , and as such are warm-blooded , or endothermic creatures, as opposed to cold-blooded, or poikilothermic animals.

However, these words have developed a separate meaning in the context of equine terminology, used to describe temperament, not body temperature.

For example, the "hot-bloods", such as many race horses , exhibit more sensitivity and energy, [96] while the "cold-bloods", such as most draft breeds , are quieter and calmer.

They are bred for agility and speed. Muscular, heavy draft horses are known as "cold bloods", as they are bred not only for strength, but also to have the calm, patient temperament needed to pull a plow or a heavy carriage full of people.

Today, the term "Warmblood" refers to a specific subset of sport horse breeds that are used for competition in dressage and show jumping.

The term was once used to refer to breeds of light riding horse other than Thoroughbreds or Arabians, such as the Morgan horse. Horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down.

In an adaptation from life in the wild, horses are able to enter light sleep by using a " stay apparatus " in their legs, allowing them to doze without collapsing.

A horse kept alone will not sleep well because its instincts are to keep a constant eye out for danger.

Unlike humans, horses do not sleep in a solid, unbroken period of time, but take many short periods of rest. Horses spend four to fifteen hours a day in standing rest, and from a few minutes to several hours lying down.

Horses must lie down to reach REM sleep. They only have to lie down for an hour or two every few days to meet their minimum REM sleep requirements.

The horse adapted to survive in areas of wide-open terrain with sparse vegetation, surviving in an ecosystem where other large grazing animals, especially ruminants , could not.

All that remains of them in modern horses is a set of small vestigial bones on the leg below the knee, [] known informally as splint bones.

Thus proto-horses changed from leaf-eating forest-dwellers to grass-eating inhabitants of semi-arid regions worldwide, including the steppes of Eurasia and the Great Plains of North America.

By about 15, years ago, Equus ferus was a widespread holarctic species. A truly wild horse is a species or subspecies with no ancestors that were ever domesticated.

Therefore, most "wild" horses today are actually feral horses , animals that escaped or were turned loose from domestic herds and the descendants of those animals.

The Przewalski's horse Equus ferus przewalskii , named after the Russian explorer Nikolai Przhevalsky , is a rare Asian animal.

It is also known as the Mongolian wild horse; Mongolian people know it as the taki , and the Kyrgyz people call it a kirtag. The subspecies was presumed extinct in the wild between and , while a small breeding population survived in zoos around the world.

In , it was reestablished in the wild due to the conservation efforts of numerous zoos. The tarpan or European wild horse Equus ferus ferus was found in Europe and much of Asia.

It survived into the historical era, but became extinct in , when the last captive died in a Russian zoo.

Attempts have been made to recreate the tarpan, [] [] [] which resulted in horses with outward physical similarities, but nonetheless descended from domesticated ancestors and not true wild horses.

Periodically, populations of horses in isolated areas are speculated to be relict populations of wild horses, but generally have been proven to be feral or domestic.

For example, the Riwoche horse of Tibet was proposed as such, [] but testing did not reveal genetic differences from domesticated horses.

Besides the horse, there are six other species of genus Equus in the Equidae family. Horses can crossbreed with other members of their genus.

The most common hybrid is the mule , a cross between a "jack" male donkey and a mare. A related hybrid, a hinny , is a cross between a stallion and a jenny female donkey.

Domestication of the horse most likely took place in central Asia prior to BC. Two major sources of information are used to determine where and when the horse was first domesticated and how the domesticated horse spread around the world.

The first source is based on palaeological and archaeological discoveries; the second source is a comparison of DNA obtained from modern horses to that from bones and teeth of ancient horse remains.

The earliest archaeological evidence for the domestication of the horse comes from sites in Ukraine and Kazakhstan , dating to approximately — BC.

Domestication is also studied by using the genetic material of present-day horses and comparing it with the genetic material present in the bones and teeth of horse remains found in archaeological and palaeological excavations.

The variation in the genetic material shows that very few wild stallions contributed to the domestic horse, [] [] while many mares were part of early domesticated herds.

There are very low levels of Y-chromosome variability, [] [] but a great deal of genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA. Before the availability of DNA techniques to resolve the questions related to the domestication of the horse, various hypotheses were proposed.

One classification was based on body types and conformation, suggesting the presence of four basic prototypes that had adapted to their environment prior to domestication.

Feral horses are born and live in the wild, but are descended from domesticated animals. There are also semi-feral horses in many parts of the world, such as Dartmoor and the New Forest in the UK, where the animals are all privately owned but live for significant amounts of time in "wild" conditions on undeveloped, often public, lands.

Owners of such animals often pay a fee for grazing rights. The concept of purebred bloodstock and a controlled, written breed registry has come to be particularly significant and important in modern times.

Sometimes purebred horses are incorrectly or inaccurately called "thoroughbreds". Thoroughbred is a specific breed of horse, while a "purebred" is a horse or any other animal with a defined pedigree recognized by a breed registry.

These inherited traits result from a combination of natural crosses and artificial selection methods. Horses have been selectively bred since their domestication.

An early example of people who practiced selective horse breeding were the Bedouin , who had a reputation for careful practices, keeping extensive pedigrees of their Arabian horses and placing great value upon pure bloodlines.

Breeds developed due to a need for "form to function", the necessity to develop certain characteristics in order to perform a particular type of work.

One of the earliest formal registries was General Stud Book for Thoroughbreds, which began in and traced back to the foundation bloodstock for the breed.

Worldwide, horses play a role within human cultures and have done so for millennia. The genetic makeup of the human population in a geographical area is affected by the presence or absence of horses more variation in Africa, less in Eurasian steppes.

Societies where horse riding is an integral part of life have developed traditional attires specially suited for horse riding such as tightly wrapping waistbands or cummerbunds giving wide support useful for protecting the spine during long journeys, and voluminous headgear such as turban to protect the skull during falls from the horse.

Horses are used for leisure activities, sports, and working purposes. The Food and Agriculture Organization FAO estimates that in , there were almost 59,, horses in the world, with around 33,, in the Americas, 13,, in Asia and 6,, in Europe and smaller portions in Africa and Oceania.

There are estimated to be 9,, horses in the United States alone. Communication between human and horse is paramount in any equestrian activity; [] to aid this process horses are usually ridden with a saddle on their backs to assist the rider with balance and positioning, and a bridle or related headgear to assist the rider in maintaining control.

Historically, equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and honed the excellent horsemanship that was needed in battle.

Many sports, such as dressage , eventing and show jumping , have origins in military training , which were focused on control and balance of both horse and rider.

Other sports, such as rodeo , developed from practical skills such as those needed on working ranches and stations.

Sport hunting from horseback evolved from earlier practical hunting techniques. All forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport.

The popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat.

Horses are trained to be ridden or driven in a variety of sporting competitions. Examples include show jumping , dressage , three-day eventing , competitive driving , endurance riding , gymkhana , rodeos , and fox hunting.

They host a huge range of classes, covering all of the mounted and harness disciplines, as well as "In-hand" classes where the horses are led, rather than ridden, to be evaluated on their conformation.

The method of judging varies with the discipline, but winning usually depends on style and ability of both horse and rider.

Although the horse requires specialized training to participate, the details of its performance are not judged, only the result of the rider's actions—be it getting a ball through a goal or some other task.

Horse racing is an equestrian sport and major international industry, watched in almost every nation of the world.

There are three types: There are certain jobs that horses do very well, and no technology has yet developed to fully replace them.

For example, mounted police horses are still effective for certain types of patrol duties and crowd control. They may also be the only form of transport allowed in wilderness areas.

Horses are quieter than motorized vehicles. Law enforcement officers such as park rangers or game wardens may use horses for patrols, and horses or mules may also be used for clearing trails or other work in areas of rough terrain where vehicles are less effective.

In agriculture, less fossil fuel is used and increased environmental conservation occurs over time with the use of draft animals such as horses.

Horses have been used in warfare for most of recorded history. The first archaeological evidence of horses used in warfare dates to between and BC, [] and the use of horses in warfare was widespread by the end of the Bronze Age.

Horses have been used in the 21st century by the Janjaweed militias in the War in Darfur. Modern horses are often used to reenact many of their historical work purposes.

Horses are used, complete with equipment that is authentic or a meticulously recreated replica, in various live action historical reenactments of specific periods of history, especially recreations of famous battles.

Countries such as the United Kingdom still use horse-drawn carriages to convey royalty and other VIPs to and from certain culturally significant events.

Horses are frequently used in television, films and literature. They are sometimes featured as a major character in films about particular animals, but also used as visual elements that assure the accuracy of historical stories.

People of all ages with physical and mental disabilities obtain beneficial results from association with horses. Therapeutic riding is used to mentally and physically stimulate disabled persons and help them improve their lives through improved balance and coordination, increased self-confidence, and a greater feeling of freedom and independence.

In hippotherapy, a therapist uses the horse's movement to improve their patient's cognitive, coordination, balance, and fine motor skills, whereas therapeutic horseback riding uses specific riding skills.

Horses also provide psychological benefits to people whether they actually ride or not. Exposure to horses appears to improve the behavior of inmates and help reduce recidivism when they leave.

Horses are raw material for many products made by humans throughout history, including byproducts from the slaughter of horses as well as materials collected from living horses.

Products collected from living horses include mare's milk, used by people with large horse herds, such as the Mongols , who let it ferment to produce kumis.

Drinking their own horses' blood allowed the Mongols to ride for extended periods of time without stopping to eat.

Horse meat has been used as food for humans and carnivorous animals throughout the ages. It is eaten in many parts of the world, though consumption is taboo in some cultures, [] and a subject of political controversy in others.

Horse hooves can also be used to produce animal glue. Horses are grazing animals, and their major source of nutrients is good-quality forage from hay or pasture.

Horses require routine hoof care from a farrier , as well as vaccinations to protect against various diseases, and dental examinations from a veterinarian or a specialized equine dentist.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Domesticated four-footed mammal from the equine family. For other uses, see Horse disambiguation.

Linnaeus , [1]. Equine coat color , Equine coat color genetics , and Horse markings. Equine anatomy , Muscular system of the horse , Respiratory system of the horse , and Circulatory system of the horse.

Skeletal system of the horse. Horse hoof , Horseshoe , and Farrier. Equine digestive system and Equine nutrition. Horse gait , Trot horse gait , Canter , and Ambling.

Horse behavior and Stable vices. Draft horse , Warmblood , and Oriental horse. Horse sleep patterns and Sleep in non-humans.

Evolution of the horse , Equus genus , and Equidae. History of horse domestication theories and Domestication of the horse. Horse breed , List of horse breeds , and Horse breeding.

Equestrianism , Horse racing , Horse training , and Horse tack. Horses in art and Horse worship. Hippotherapy and Therapeutic horseback riding.

Equine nutrition , Horse grooming , Veterinary medicine , and Farrier. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae: Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Opinion Case ". Archived from the original on Retrieved 12 September Horse Anatomy 2nd ed.

Complete Equine Veterinary Manual. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs. Archived from the original on January 20, American Endurance Riding Conference.

Horses and Tack Revised ed. United States Equestrian Federation. Archived from the original PDF on See McBane , pp.

Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine. L; Bailey, E; Bellone, R. F; Biagi, T; Binns, M. Equus caballus - Description".

The Complete Horse Care Manual. Dorling Kindersley Publishing, Inc. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. Communications Services, Oklahoma State University.

Revolution in Horsemanship and What it Means to Mankind. Montana State University eXtension. Problems of Limbs in young Horses". Storey's Guide to Training Horses: Ground Work, Driving, Riding.

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